Kronotsky lake: a perfect mirror of nature!
Looking at the lake: no sun, no stars, no oaks, though reflected so vividly, do not leave a trace in it.
In this article, we suggest you get acquainted with one of the most beautiful places in Kamchatka - Kronotsky lake, learn its unique origin, parameters, history of research, the fish fauna, flora and the future.
A little history
If we talk about the history of the lake, it is possible to make an unambiguous conclusion: it is rich and interesting.
The first mention of it occurs at the end of the 18th century. In 1774 the scientist Steller G.V. displayed a short description about the lake and its inhabitants in his work. Also in 1775 Krasheninnikov tried to tell about reservoir, he is the scientist after whom was later named one of the volcanoes on Kamchatka.
Why try? During expeditions, no one scientist could not get to the lake, because severe natural conditions and difficult landscape "did not allow" them to implement it. All information collected belonged to the stories of local residents Itelmens. Work of Steller and Krasheninnikov called - "Description of the Land of Kamchatka".
The next appearance of the Kronotsky lake "on the horizon of scientists" was dated 1901. Carl von Ditmar had written a work about his research of the lake, which is held back in the 1851 - 1855 years. Unfortunately, he was never able to reach inaccessible land of natural reservoir. He founded his work on the stories of the same locals. So what is that - a lake or a ghost?
The first recorded visit to the lake is only by 1908. Then two scientists Schmidt P.Y. and Riabushinskii F.P. We were able to reach the shore of the lake and make a sketch of a topographical map, which were displayed its shape, form, flow of the river Kronotsky (main power supply of the reservoir).
Further events are more and more interesting. In the early 20th century (1920) scientist R. Malles by visiting these places made more detailed and accurate map. Another researcher of wildlands became Krokhin E.M. He personally visited the lake. Having made a full analysis of the area and the pond, he first put forward the hypothesis that it was formed as a result of the eruption of 2 volcanoes - Krasheninnikov and Kronotsky. Huge chunks of lava, minerals, ash and soil blocked the path of the river Paleokronotskaya, thereby creating a unique reservoir.
In the middle of the same century were held several large-scale expeditions. Their results confirmed that the formation of the lake is completely dependent on the natural disasters that occurred thousands of years ago.
The formation of the lake: the mystery, covered with water
The origin of the Kronotsky lake basin - a very exciting topic that should be paid attention to.
In the words of Itelmens Kronotsky means - high stone mountain. That is to say that the Kamchatka locals already knew that the lake was "designed" by nature itself thanks to two huge volcanic eruptions. Today Russian scientists know for sure that it is 100% is of natural origin, but not caldera.
Through studying a variety of maps and data recorded in many sources of local residents, as well as review of geodetic data, we can be sure that this water reservoir was formed about 10 thousand years ago. The water reservoir was formed by the eruption. It was 200 meters, which was simply not afford to Poleokronotskoy river, in spite of all its power and agility.
Further, due to the volcanic activity the Kronotsky lake was formed.
"Dossier" on the lake
Kronotsky lake is considered as the most beautiful and biggest on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Due to the forces of nature, it acquired its correct form. Today, among all the existing lakes in the Kronotsky Nature Reserve, this water reservoir is the largest - 242 square kilometers, its catchment area is 2330 square kilometers. Of course, the list of water attractions of the reserve, it is not the deepest, but falls into the "hits" - on 3rd place (148 m).
By volume it occupies 2nd place - 12.4 cu km. This reservoir is located just 20 km from the famous Valley of Geysers. The lake is shaped like an isosceles triangle, so it created the Mother Nature. Altitude - 372 m. We should also mention an attractive landscape that is worthy of an artist's brush.
From the east near the water reservoir in the immediate vicinity there are 11 islands that rise above it to a height of 25 to 50 m. Each of them is named after a member of the Kamchatka expedition Ryabushinsky F.P. Here are some of their names: Kondratyev, Komarov, Baer.
In winter time Kronotsky lake completely freezes, the ice thickness is an average of 1 m. This block of ice leads to the delight of everyone who sees it.
"Feeding" of a reservoir is carried out by 25 small rivers flowing into it. And only one river flows out of the reservoir - Kronotsky. It is, unfortunately, because of its characteristics (strong currents, rapids, whirlpools) is an impassable barrier for salmon spawning.
If you want to find out where the Kronotsky lake, then you should look closely at the photos of Kronotsky volcano, in fact, it was at its foot is the body of water. The coordinates on the map are: 54.786389, 160.226667
Inhabitants and flora
The uniqueness of this reservoir is not only in its origins, but also that it represents today. The fact that its territory (water spaces and the shores of Lake) became home to many rare species of animals, birds, plants and fish.
For example, in the basin it inhabits a huge population (the flock) Kokanee (living form of sockeye salmon), about 30 million specimens.
The first recorded data on the fish fauna of the lake are dated 1908 year. This research carried out a scientific expedition headed by FP Riabouchinsky In general, the "locals" of the reservoir have been very interesting to many researchers.
So this place was visited by Lebedev V.N. in 1915, Schmidt P.J in 1916. The latter, in his memoirs, very flatteringly about fishing with a seine. Here's an excerpt from his letter: "2 times throwing net, we pulled a few buckets of char."
In addition, it is worth noting that due to the rigid insulation family of char brought a new specie, which is slightly different from its congeners. Question of speciation greatly interested ichthyologists and geneticists. Also, the uniqueness and importance of the Kronotsky lake lies in the fact that its coast is a developed network of solid larch Kamchatka and Ajan spruce.
In the branches of the old, centuries-old, but beautiful trees live Steller's sea eagle, made in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. For tourists, the lake is certainly more famous for its swans, which are myriad. Here, in the warm season they nest and delight guests with its stunning views.
Interesting fact - Kronotsky lake in the winter and in the summer for some strange reason, always cold. It is simply impossible to swim. While this phenomenon is not justified from a scientific point of view, but researches are underway.
Welcome to the Kronotsky lake!
You can get there only as a traveler on a group tour. To preserve the pristine nature, all tours is accompanied by special staff, state inspector and a guide.
Well, that's very true. Because of this "delicacy", we can continue to talk about this wonderful and unspoilt place, and it is - to continue to exist.
Kronotsky Lake on the map to find a snap. However, much more interesting to go there in person to see how wonderful everything that makes nature that gives us. One can only appreciate her gifts and save them in every way!