Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka: a place where life is in full swing!
Kronotsky Reserve in Kamchatka - is not just a portion of the area, where there are many natural wonders of the world, it is also our heritage, protected by the authorities and the World Organization UNESCO. The fact that on its territory there are many important components: it is a rare species of animals and plants, volcanoes and hot springs, which play an important role in the development of nature, not only in Russia, but all over the world!
One of the main attractions for which was created the reserve, is the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka. Oh, how many mysteries keeps this place, how many people are trying to solve them ... The history here is interesting, and it can inspire to write a novel.
In this article we will try to more fully consider all the nuances of this natural corner in Kamchatka. The local people and scientists from Russia are so proud of it, corner, came out of nowhere, from the time when the earth was not yet a man.
What is the geysers?
We all know what a geyser is. However, it is complicated in its structure a natural phenomenon of a particular system and order.
From the side of observers, tourists, everything is very simple. From the land in different parts of the area pulled columns of hot water. Miracle?
What is it from a scientific perspective? The process of this "eruption" is more complicated. Magma, located in the ground, heats water andthe porous stones, which leads to a violent reaction. Further, this "script" can occur in two ways:
1. If the water moves freely between the stones, then it just flows out freely, forming as a result a hot spring. There are dozens of them in the territory of the Valley of Geysers.
2. In the case where ground waters meet on the way an obstacle in the form of densely packed stones, then it (the water) is looking for a way out and under pressure breaks free, splashing a powerful jet. This phenomenon is called a geyser. That is why this place is very popular among both scientists and tourists alike. Such a sight can not but amaze and fascinate. As if you find yourself in another dimension, in which the usual laws do not apply.
It is remarkable that every such "fountain" has its own special period of "explosion", the height of the water column and temperature. It is essentially, "the person with a unique character, as well as in humans. There are very modest, not hurrying to show his ardor, and there are also hot and do not tolerate delay!
Another point: whence has undertaken such an interesting name? It comes from the Icelandic word «geysa», which means that, if translated literally, "gush." In addition, it is worth noting the fact that the described phenomenon can be formed only in the area of increased activity (or active volcano recently extinguished).
In Kamchatka, the Valley of Geysers is powered by the famous and magnificent in their parameters and uniqueness Uzon known in the world, as deposit of the new element Uzon and of the youngest of oil. The last time it erupted 'only' 8000 years ago, that by the standards of the world quite a bit, but its interior is still living force capable of destroying and, as it turns out, to create.
Each of the geysers in the valley has its own special character (characteristics). Coming here, tourists love to watch their features and power. Employees of the reserve called these differences "mode of operation." Such commonplace formulation hides a surprising events that may unenlightened man seem unremarkable, but if you look closely, it is already impossible to stop loving Valley.
From where geysers "came" to Kamchatka?
Geysers - this is very common, found worldwide. They are a great many and they are scattered all over the ground. Some are small, others are large and attracted the attention of a huge number of tourists and scientists. Some of them are protected by law and controlled by the world organization UNESCO.
Famous "fountains" are in countries such as:
• Iceland is rightly considered a unique country of geysers in Europe. Geiser Grand in Haukadalur Valley - the largest and most magnificent in the continent.
• New Zealand.
Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka is one of them. It is among the five largest and most important in the world. Thanks to it has been created modern Kronotsky reserve.
No wonder that it is considered a sacred place among indigenous peoples, they believe that it is still inhabited by the gods, and, possibly, in their words there is truth.
The fascinating story of the Valley
The history of the valley begins in 1941. It was found by geologist Tatyana Ustinova with her guide Krupenin. In those days, they have been studying the riverbed noisy. Going down the river, they thought to find a new river, the origins of which they expected to start in the lands of Uzon. However, they managed to make more important discovery, went down in history of Kamchatka. Canyon was covered with a thick layer of snow. That is why they have registered only one geyser - "Pervenetz(firstborn)."
Of course, on the way of studying got up a serious obstacle, because of which this place is left unexplored - the Second World War. A terrible time, which delayed the introduction of humanity with geysers. After it ended the scientists returned several times and fixed data obtained on wild lands. In subsequent years, it was a huge amount of expeditions to this deposit and opened a lot of new "Fountains."
As a result, from official sources everyone can find a lot of old photographs and maps made by Ustinova.
They were marked by almost all large and several small geysers, as well as a number of hot springs. Fifty years later after the discovery this canyon has become available to all tourists who want to touch the natural phenomena of such magnitude and importance. You can also join their ranks, if you are intrigued by the mystery.
What is to note in the calendar?
Important dates in the development of the Valley of Geysers remarkable. They can get an impression of how rough life here, as well as jet spurting out of the ground. However, for the sake of interest, we do not arrange them in chronological order. What for? So you can get a lot more enjoyment, collecting all the "puzzle" bit by bit, watching how they live geysers and even - die.
• 1967 - 1977 - a ban on wild tourism in protected areas.
• In 1981, "thanks to" typhoon "Elsa", the water level in the river Geysernaya was raised to several meters. Because of the disaster suffered several springs and geysers: including Malachite Grotto, and "Bolshaya Pechka (The Big stove)" at all disappeared from the face of the earth. So, it turns out, geysers, as people come into this world, and leave it.
• 1993 - Canyon has been officially opened for visiting expeditions and visitors from around the world. Until that time, the government and management of the reserve by the public funding to create all the necessary conditions and infrastructure. Since then until the present day independent visit to valley is prohibited and rightly so.
• In 2007, Vladimir Strzhalkovsky, head of the Federation of Tourism, was refused to increase funding.
• In June 2007, the valley came mudflow, because of which formed a natural dam, and some geysers were partially flooded. Mudflows stopped just before the house keepers. But all the staff and tourists were evacuated in time and nobody was injured.
• In 1967, the Valley of Geysers was closed to public access. This happened from the fact that there were many injuries in people who attempt to get to the place by their own, as well as for the violation of the integrity of nature.
• 1977 - 1993 - the year the ban on visits to the canyon.
Naturally, this is not all the dates that may interest you, but these are the main events that demonstrate that this place deserves attention, because in spite of all the difficulties and the hardships it still exists!
Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka and its stars
1. The largest, interesting and powerful of the geysers in the area is the "Giant." It is surprising for its parameters and by the eruption:
• The height of the water discharge as even call it a fountain - 35 m.
• The amount of water is spewing up to 60 tons.
• It is also one of the five biggest geyser in the world.
• A pillar of steam emitted by them, reaches about one hundred meters.
• The duration of its eruptions - as much as 4.5 hours.
2. The next star of the reserve in this area is considered a geyser called "Gates of Hell" (a very scary name, which even some tourists inspire primal fear). Is not it already fascinates? Such ominous name he was given because of its depth constantly heard the roar. Also, like the previous one in the list, it is striking in its natural strength and beauty.
3. "Firstborn" - this geyser is generally worthy of special love and attention, because from here begins the incredible story of the Valley of Geysers. He was the first "boss" of this place, which met such important guests as a geologist Ustinova in 1941.
4. "Big" was once flooded, but today it is still possible to observe its activity. It appears with a decrease in the water level.
5. "Baby" - is the youngest of the geyser, which appeared recently in 2007. We believe that it has a great future.
In total, the Valley of Geysers, there are about 100, and each has its own characteristics. Also worth noting that in the territory of the valley there are several attractions:
"Vitraz (Stained Glass) Wall" - on a ledge near the steep walls there are many geysers and hot springs.
Also in the canyon there are many hot springs (Vanna(Bath), Fountain, New, Small oven), and one of them appeared relatively recently, in 2007 after a mudslide.
Some interesting names geysers:
• Fountain - it is a name that speaks.
• Sh’el (Chink)
• Saharniy (Sugar).
• Leshiy and Zemchuzniy (Pearl).
• Konus (Cone).
The duration of the eruption of geysers in the canyon:
• Some - once or twice a day is quite rare, as if they are waiting to make a splash.
• Other every fifteen minutes. The same - on the contrary, impatient. They do not want to wait, and show your temper in all its glory!
Flora and fauna around the geysers
If we talk about living creatures and vegetation in the valley, we can say very easy - they are not almost there. The thing is that there is created a special "unfriendly" atmosphere for living beings in need of favorable conditions. Nobody can withstand a long stay in this location.
The reasons are many:
• Boiling water, emitted by geysers in some places reaches 95 C. In fact, it is the boiling point.
• The land around the geysers covered with a special composition - geysers and salt siliceous deposits. This precipitate remain due to drying of mineral water flowing from the vent sources. In addition, not far from some of them formed the lake with a unique color and smell, because all of the same geyserite.
Singular and undemanding plant, occurring in the vicinity of these fountains - it's wormwood. It does not care for the climate and other conditions. It once "made a decision" to grow here, and nothing can stop it.
Also worth noting that brown bears - the only animals that do not neglect the grass, appearing here in the spring when the first thaw. They are happy to regale sprouts, walked out of the snow. It was here, in the land warmed by geysers the first signs of spring appear. And this awakening as if nature gives a sign to geysers that it's time to have fun in the open space from which bored snow will leave.
Tourism in the Valley of Geysers
Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka - a special tourist zone in the Kronotsky Nature Reserve, with its unique mode and the rules which must be complied with absolutely all visitors.
Basically, trips to this part of Kamchatka held by helicopters.
However, a visit to this place is done on foot, but in this case, the whole process has more strict character. Reserve staff accompany visitors. Moving the group is carried out on specially prepared trails, located at a safe distance.
The fact is that before a visit to the Valley of Geysers has been simplified, and as a result of this decision there were several cases of injury of tourists - nothing serious, but scalded hands and legs become a pretext for tightening the rules. It was done for the benefit of man, because nature is the primitive, we should be able to admire it.
Parameters and characteristics of the valley, which will be interest to you!
Any place - is not only interesting facts, but also - figures. Generally very interesting to consider them when we are talking about the Valley of Geysers, and you are sure of it personally:
• The number of "fountains" - 100, it is noteworthy that 20 of them have a very impressive size and power.
• The largest geyser has an appropriate name - "Giant" for example.
• The area that is occupied by the geysers in Kamchatka - 2 km².
• The length of the area - 4 km.
• The width of the valley - 2 km.
• The climate is temperate in the canyon, the average summer temperature up to + 12°C in winter -9°C.
• It was formed many years ago at the confluence of two rivers: Geysernaya and Shumnaya (Noisy).
• The soil temperature at a depth of 1 meter up to 70°C.
• This valley is still considered the one and only of its kind in Eurasia.
However, as a reader, for sure, you want to know more interesting details, that can help to meet the valley! Well, we give you this opportunity:
• In 1972, on its territory were filming the film has become a legend, "Sannikov Land."
• Many visitors get a fright and injury solely because of an interesting phenomenon - a green grass areas that seem, at first glance, these safe and nice, but fraught with great danger. They have a very shaky foundation. If you stand on such place, the foot is instantly plunged into a hot goo.
• In the history of the valley is known for just one tragic case - bear inadvertently slipped on a slippery slope, and went straight into the hot spring. Since that time it is called - "Wicked." Thus, it is a vivid proof that this place is not friendly to living beings.
• Since 2008, the land the Kronotsky Nature Reserve is among the seven wonders of the world in Russia.
• Itelmens, indigenous people believe that steam rising into the sky from the source, it is the evil spirits. That is why there are no nearby village or home. However, the tourists say that while none of the spirits could not hurt them.
• Jets of water, escaping to the outside are dangerous only in the immediate vicinity of the geyser. During the fall of liquid on the ground it has cooled down.
This friendly Valley!
If sum up, we can say that the Valley of Geysers - this unique field of natural springs, formed many centuries ago. Some of the fountains have a separate history of development and even "death."
Since its official opening to the valley has undergone many changes and has experienced a lot of problems, including the Second World War. Today, this part of the protected Kamchatka is in great demand and love, both tourists and scientists geologists.
Also worth noting the fact that our native land (Valley of Geysers) is part of the natural sites protected by the World Organization UNESCO. Is not it a reason to be proud of its history and uniqueness? Of course, the fact that the geyser field is in danger after a mudslide in 2007, it is worried those who are not indifferent to the attractions of Kamchatka.
Today, the Federation of Tourism is doing everything possible to not simply keep a part of nature, and all the geysers, even those that are flooded today. If you wish to look at this natural wonder, then you should definitely go to Kamchatka in the Kronotsky Nature Reserve. There are not simply keep the wonders of nature, they are not touched by human hand and protected by law in the territory. Great mysteries, ancient, primitive, they are very close, one has only stretch out a hand ...
It is important to remember that tourism in these places is permitted only in official form in the group controlled by the reserve staff. You can choose different types of visits to geysers: air (helicopter) or in a walking group. There are all conditions for a comfortable and pleasant stay. The most important thing is that now you'll be a bit different to look at the issues of preserving the picturesque corners of Russia, they will remind us of what it was before, when there was harmony, which we have practically lost.