Kronotsky reserve: Encyclopedia of natural beauty!
If you are looking for new emotions, if you love nature with all your heart, the journey to the Kronotsky Nature Reserve will be your best gift. You can be sure that this wonderful place you should definitely get to know and, at least once in life, to be there in personally!
A few words as an introduction
Kronotsky Nature Reserve is one of the oldest and largest in Russia, however, it doesn’t have analogues, and after reading this publication, you agree with this statement! Status of State Reserve it acquired in 1934. Before that, it was officially listed as "Sable", which was formed in 1882. The area is under the protection, which contributes to the conservation of many species of rare birds and animals.
In the Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve each year come thousands of tourists who dream to touch the nature untouched by the hand of man to this day. On its territory is a huge number of sites that are so popular with travelers and nature lovers.
Today this place is one of the most popular among tourists not only from Russia but also from around the world.
The rich and fascinating history!
History and development of the Kronotsky Nature Reserve is large and colorful. It's hard to tell "at one go", but definitely worth a try.
You should start with the fact that in the past, elders of the people who inhabited this area and commanded to see to it that no tree had been cut and that no animals are not subjected to persecution of a human hand.
Since most times this place is the people and all those who enters there. Legend has it that anyone who would encroach on the beauty and integrity of the reserve will suffer and be punished by nature. The people revered order of Itelmens ancestors, for centuries no one was allowed even to approach the softwood grove, which at the time was reserve, with an area of only 20 hectares.
In 1882, a special commission, which was assembled at the request of Benedict Tadeusz Yanovich Dybovsky, approved the draft of the 2 nature reserves, among which was the Kronotsky. For it protection they were hired employees living in neighboring villages. They continued the work of their ancestors. They were even allowed to take capital punishment against the poachers - the death penalty. There is even a remark in the official documents.
With such measures and was saved sable, which at the time was in the Red Book and was in danger of extinction. Already in 1934, Kronotsky Reserve in Kamchatka was included in the list of official natural places that received special funding. During the decade (1951-1961) the story of the reserve was heavy. It is often closed and reopened for tourist access.
Celebrity, a little of volcanoes and that any accident can not afford to destroy ...
It is interesting that every time Reserve re-opens, its territory grew, and it became more beautiful and gorgeous. Actually, it's a miracle Kronotskoye famous because of the Valley of Geysers, which is included in the 5-at the world's largest.
The biggest of its geysers and the Giant Grotto throw out up to 60 tons of hot water, which is very impressive. In 1996, the first of them "Giant" was added to the catalog of the World Natural Heritage Site in the category "The Geysers in Kamchatka."
In 2007 in Kamchatka was recorded natural disaster, which to everyone's surprise in no way affected the Valley of Geysers, but instead made her even more beautiful and amazing.
"Biography" of Kronotsky reserve
Kronotsky State Nature Reserve spread his possessions for most of the eastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula. It takes about a 1,147,619 hectare plus total water area of 135 000 hectares. Its vast territory has many natural, without exaggeration, the wonders of the world:
• 25 volcanoes, 8 of which are still active.
• Valley of Geysers, in whose territory is the largest and strongest Giant Geyser, emits streams of boiling water for 30 m in height. The total number of geysers - 40 pieces.
• Thermal lake, attracting tourists.
• A lot of waterfalls, the highest of which has a height of 80 m.
• Beautiful and amazing forests, mostly consisting of stone birch. They kept their primitiveness and unique appearance. Many of them have several hundred years.
• Natural monument - Kuthiny Baty. This is powerful fangs of pumice height of 110 m.
Relief of Kronotsky reserve for the most part is mountain. But 10% of the total area is occupied by plains, which are located along the sea coast. Temperature range is very cool: winter 9 C, summer 13 C. The wild land of this natural corner is washed by the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk. Its "Birthday" Reserve celebrates 8 April 1983.
Mode of stay on the territory is very strict, since today the leadership has a difficult task, it is maintaining populations of some rare animal species and the entire ecosystem of the Kurile Lake as a whole. Unfortunately, not all people understand and admire this beauty, trying to destroy what from generation to generation remained by Itelmens!
A fairy tale for tourists
About the popularity of Kronotsky reserve, it can compose legends. This place is simply beautiful, and mystical and mysterious, and dangerous. Most interesting is that it is a little bit of everything. For tourists created all conditions so that they can verify this personally:
• Helicopter day trips to volcanoes (200 km) and the Valley of Geysers, which have a length of 250 km.
• Trekking to volcanoes and geysers, a length of 1325 m.
• Multi-day research tour of the reserved places with an overnight stay in special camps: rivers, lakes, forests, waterfalls, Grove. Duration 5-6 days, the distance is small, only 4-6 km, but how many discovers are waiting for you there!
Especially for the activities created all conditions for safety and comfortable stay of tourists: campgrounds, system catering, bathroom, kitchen, heating, viewing platforms, control by the researchers. On the excursions paths it has been built special trails along the coast.
Travelers are offered the opportunity to observe and photograph natural phenomena such as geysers, hot springs, the habits of animals of different breeds and species, and much more.
All of this is not only for the benefit of tourists, but also to nature itself, thus it is possible to reduce the load on the protected outdoor area.
Species listed in the Red Book
As noted above, in territory of reserve "lives" a huge number of animals and plants that are still listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation.
We offer you in this article to get acquainted with some of them, because humanity has been able to lose them forever, but the Kronotsky Nature Reserve "not allowed" this:
Lady's Slipper macranthon.
Steller's sea eagle.
Aleutian Canada Goose.
The Asian long-billed murrelet.
Far Eastern Curlew.
Piskulka and many others.
Northern blue whale.
North fin fish.
Beaked whale and others.
Fortunately, the Kronotsky reserve included in the list of natural areas protected by UNESCO, which means that these animals / plants / birds are protected by law and quietly develop in their familiar environment. For example, sea otters (sea Kamchatka beaver) during the existence of the biosphere park has increased its numbers, and now is not on the verge of extinction. Do not wonder whether it is not a fantasy?
In these areas there are huge flocks of rare birds, which are not under attack from people. Generally all the animals living on the territory of the zone, are not afraid of human presence, they quietly respond to staff and tourists who can easily take photos and get great pictures.
The museum, which is a call for love of nature!
Reserve itself is a huge museum, which belongs to ... you will not believe, but it has only one owner - Mother Nature. There are guided tours every day by the best employees, which do not just work here, they love this part of the whole soul.
The main attraction of the museum is the Valley of Geysers, which can be reached only by helicopter. Most of the staff (guards, keepers, foresters, etc.) were recruited among the local people.
The list of exhibits includes a huge number of natural and untouched by human hand places such as volcanoes, geysers, lakes, rivers, waterfalls, forest areas, and more.
Moreover, to each site directed daily hundreds of tourists gathered in groups, so that they could not meet on the way.
On the territory of these natural phenomena have been built special viewing platforms. Also, guests have the unique opportunity to go on a multi-day trek in which you can visit the best attractions of Kronotsky reserve.
Flora and fauna
If we talk about the flora and fauna that are present on the territory of Kronotsky reserve, it can be concluded that there has gathered everything you can invent Mother Nature.
There is a huge number of insects, mammals, birds, fish, plants, flowers and trees of various species. All of this is also the sights of natural corner, captivates its naturalness.
It is also important to note the fact that here there are many species of animals and sea creatures that are on the verge of extinction and protected by law. Here are found such a beautiful and unique mammals like elk and sable, brown bear and bighorn sheep, weasel and lynx, wolverine and fox, and many others. In 2000, divorced and still the musk ox and wild cats.
Today, of particular importance is the conservation of species such as the brown bear (there are about 800 individuals), and reindeer. It is sad to see people destroying all life around, hoping to create a perfect world, but it’s here, under the trees we have the same ideal world, saved, saved from ruin ...
In rivers and lakes inhabited by a huge variety of fish: salmon, pink salmon, brown trout, chum salmon, trout, coho, sockeye. There is also a rare species of amphibians such as the Siberian salamander and the leatherback turtle. It is also worth noting that over the territory of the reserve lie migration routes of all kinds of birds that like to relax in the woods and on the shores of the peninsula.
In total in the area of reserve is identified and recorded 234 species of birds, among which 100 – nesting, 49 of them listed in the Red Book of Russia. Of the 44 species of mammals, 7 - included in the list of endangered and protected by law. One of the most important "persons" is sea otter, which was once on the verge of extinction. He was tried not to disturb many years, giving the opportunity to proliferate and run their everyday life without human intervention. Today, in the south of the peninsula, there are about 2 thousands individuals.
Also worth noting is the fact that some species of animals and plants got into reserve in an interesting way. For example, black pine barbel was brought here by chance, along with timber from which constructed viewing platforms.
Ichthyofauna also abounds in its diversity, as evidenced by the fact that already counted more than 104 species of fish, but this is only a preliminary estimate.
It is also worth noting that among the abundance of flora there are some rare species, such as: wild orchid, rhododendron golden, lezaleuriya, Trillium Kamchatka. In some rivers, right in the water of this natural park is growing poisonous plant called "milestones poisonous."
If you are a fan of exotic flowers of unusual shapes and colors, then you will appreciate such exemplars as: lily bright white, black and purple and purple-red. In addition, in territory of reserve in the upper of the river Geyser found "spiranthes Chinese", which is quite rare.
Summing up the results of this section, we can say that many animals of Kronotsky reserve included in the Red Book. They are valuable in all respects, including, reminding us of life in harmony with the environment. The fact is that many of the species are either on the verge of extinction, or are pursued by poachers, but in the Kronotsky Nature Reserve is always a place to save those in need, and they will continue to live!
The volcanoes, lakes, valleys, geysers and their miraculous appearance!
Kronotsky reserve is also famous for its amazing natural sites, such as: volcanoes, lakes, valleys, geysers. Each of the sites is to pay a little more attention.
Death Valley. This unique natural phenomenon, which just amazes with its cold blood to the residents who come down to feast on. For example, in the spring, when the snow melts, small rodents go for the grass. The fact is that from the earth cracks in this valley there is constant vaporization of poisonous gas, which causes the death of animals. Then carnivorous creatures go for food that also die. Especially for this was formed a group of volunteers of the Kronotsky Nature Reserve, which removed small animals, thus saving predators. Scientists still can not understand the real cause of death, because the death of the animals does not occur immediately, but because of long exposure to the gas, and the rotting process is not clear, because in such circumstances, even the germs do not survive.
On the territory of the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka, there are about 40 pieces of geysers, which constantly work tirelessly, surprising tourists and travelers. Each has its own characteristics and strength. For example, "The Giant", which is among the five largest in the world. The amount ejected boiling water is 60 tons, and the fountain height - 30 m, which is simply amazing. The valley is hidden away in the depths of the peninsula, and can get there only by helicopter. It was opened in 1941by scientists Ustinova T.I.
The number of volcanoes on the territory of Kronotsky reserve is 25 units, 8 of which are still active. The most beautiful and wonderful of them are Uzon and Kronotsky volcanoes, each of which is surprising for its nuances. Uzon acting to this day, constantly amazes by bubbling stream and burst of "anger", emitted in its various parts. There was found a special mineral - Uzon. On the territory is situated about 1 thousand of hot springs that continuously produce hot water, steam and smoke. Volcano kronotsky is height of 3528 m, it has an excellent smooth cone shape. It was silent for many years, but in its depths still simmering, as evidenced fumarole jets that continually make themselves felt. Kizimen volcano, which after 80 years of sleep woke up and began to erupt. Also worth mentioning is such an important object as Krasheninnikov volcano, on whose territory endangered species bighorn sheep lives.
Crater of Uzon has many sights: mud pots, steaming, crater lake with algae, steep slopes, behind which you can see clear lakes with fish and swans. The basin of the volcano is about 10 km in diameter. Do not forget that in the depths of a volcano Uzon the oil was discovered, it’s the youngest in the land, which has only 1 thousand years. Its formation is in no way connected with the human factor.
There is 80-meter waterfall on the river Shumnaya (noisy). There are about 40 in the reserve. Generally Noisy River carries the risk, which is expressed in the winding paths, swift current, the presence of many rapids and whirlpools. Many tourists come here for the sake of this unforgettable spectacle - shine water, noise, and the amazing beauty of the flora, that can not miss any traveler.
The world's only grove of fir graceful is situated on the territory the Kronotsky Nature Reserve. It is also protected by law, and on the territory exposed positions. The fact that this is the only grove in the world, and its safety has been the original reason for the creation of the reserve. Many people from different countries come to see it and taste the wonderful flavor of its flowering. In addition, on its territory you can find many amazing herbivores who come here to eat. Also worth noting is the fact that scientists still can not figure out how a fir to get here. The fact that this plant is not peculiar to this climate. Today, there are 2 versions of it appearance: it survived the Ice Age, or it was brought by sailors in the past. Each of these hypotheses has the right to exist.
Kronotsky lake. Its vast area - 242 km. It is the deepest and most populous in the ecosystem. Let's start with the fact that the lake located at the foot of the volcano, which is almost down to it. It was formed because of the explosion of gases and volcanic eruptions, which, with its lava flows disconnected part of the river flow, and create a beautiful and amazing lake. Today "a whole state" of underwater creatures of various kinds lives in the pond, some of which are even listed as endangered.
It was here come running almost all brown bears from the of Kronotsky reserve during the spawning season to feast on fish. Steller's sea eagle loves a red fish, it’s a beautiful bird with a wingspan of up to 2.5 meters. Eagles are found only in Kamchatka, they always return to their permanent place of nesting, watching their housing. It is no secret that many photographers are fond of natural beauty, made their best photos here.
The river "hot spring", which feeds on water from the depths, heated under the influence of active volcanoes. The temperature at the source of the river is 45 C. In general, in territory of reserve has a huge variety of hot springs, some of them can even swim. By itself, this river attracts visitors because it has a beautiful flora and fish fauna around, despite the warm water.
Kronotsky Bay also has the right to the attention, as its uniqueness and beauty are amazing travelers. It is part of the Pacific Ocean, which washes on the east coast of the Kamchatka and 2 peninsulas - Shipunsky and Kronotsky. The length of the Gulf of 68.5 km, width - 231 km, and its depth - 1.5 thous. M. By the way, in the winter it freezes.
Glaciers.Iin the reserve there is a great variety of them, but among of them there are some of the largest and most important. It depend on them the state of fish fauna of many lakes and rivers. One of the largest and most powerful is Tyushevskii. It starts his owning at an altitude of 1200 m., and ends at 600 meters above sea level. Its length is 12 km. Many glaciers are the main water sources for a large number of rivers and lakes. Here is a list of the largest and most beautiful glaciers: Alney, Troy, Koryto, Golovka, Muck. They, of course, also have a significant influence on the formation of weather within the reserve.
In the Valley of Geysers, you can cook eggs
Unbelievable but true. Soon Kronotsky expect big changes. The fact that the management of this natural museum was visited at a meeting with European and Western counterparts, who gave some practical advice. In the near future, there can be contemplate a lot of innovations, for example, tourists will have the opportunity to cook in the hot springs of the valley of geysers eggs. Of course, this event will be under the strict guidance and supervision of the reserve.
Welcome to Kamchatka!
If you are adventurous and lover of nature, then you should go to the Kronotsky Nature Reserve, where Mother Nature flowers and smells. There, in the depths of the countryside, you can look at what was invented and made the best painter and sculptor of all time - the nature.
All year round here come the huge crowds of tourists who want to look at what had created nature itself: volcanoes, lakes, geysers, waterfalls, gorges, valleys, forests and much more. Some of them amaze for its beauty and perfect appearance, other by their risk and cold-minded.
Kronotsky reserve is protected and included in the list of natural sites that need the highest category of protection. On the territory is prohibited any kind of economic activity, and a visit is allowed only with informative purposes and with special mass organizations (group of tourists).
Within the reserve there are special rules of visiting that must be followed in strict accordance, as might otherwise have problems with the law. Also, do not forget about the ancient curse of elders. It is displayed in the writings of Itelmens.
In the area of Kamchatka little more of Italy. Between the Pacific Ocean, the Bering and Okhotsk seas from north to south across the peninsula stretched mountain chains. In 1697 Russian explorers discovered Kamchatka, but so far it is still little known to the world.
Climate in Kamchatka is cold, winters are mild only in coastal areas and inland it’s snow-covered 6-12 meters. In summer there are often fogs and strong winds dominate, but heavy rains irrigate the land. You can temper the character and breathe a full breast, but it's worth it!